Current UV Index
Adelaide
UV index: 4.0

UV index for Adelaide: 4.0 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:27 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Alice Springs
UV index: 3.2

UV index for Alice Springs: 3.2 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:27 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Brisbane
UV index: 8.4

UV index for Brisbane: 8.4 - VERY HIGH
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:57 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
  • Wear a wide brimmed hat
  • Seek shade
Canberra
UV index: 4.6

UV index for Canberra: 4.6 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Darwin
UV index: 4.6

UV index for Darwin: 4.6 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:26 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Emerald
UV index: 7.6

UV index for Emerald: 7.6 - HIGH
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
  • Wear a wide brimmed hat
Gold Coast
UV index: 4.5

UV index for Gold Coast: 4.5 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Kingston
UV index: 4.0

UV index for Kingston: 4.0 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
Melbourne
UV index: 1.7

UV index for Melbourne: 1.7 - LOW
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
Newcastle
UV index: 6.3

UV index for Newcastle: 6.3 - HIGH
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
  • Wear a wide brimmed hat
Perth
UV index: 1.4

UV index for Perth: 1.4 - LOW
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 7:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
Sydney
UV index: 6.2

UV index for Sydney: 6.2 - HIGH
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:56 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen
  • Wear a wide brimmed hat
Townsville
UV index: 4.8

UV index for Townsville: 4.8 - MODERATE
Last updated Thursday, 17 October 2019 at 9:57 am

Minimum recommended protection:

  • Wear sunglasses
  • Apply sunscreen

Click the indexes to view the minimum recommended protection

When the UV index is low, sun protection is generally not needed unless outside for extended periods

UV observations courtesy of ARPANSA
Disclaimer

Immunotherapy and Biological Therapy

 

What is Immunotherapy?

This is the name given to any treatment that utilises the body's own immune system to fight disease.  This may occur by eliciting, enhancing or suppressing a natural immune response. There are a number of treatments that fall in this category.

Anti PD1 drugs:

In the simplest possible terms, these drugs are antibodies that block the on/off switch on a type of white cell (T-cell).  Specifically, melanoma tumors produce a substance that 'turns off' these T cells, so they do not attack the melanoma.  These drugs block that action so that the T-cells stay switched on and can now attack melanoma cells.

 

CTLA4 drugs:

Another of the body's white cells are the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which can recognize and destroy cancer cells. However, another inhibitory process, similar to that described above, interrupts this destruction. These drugs turn off this inhibitory mechanism and allow CTL's to function and attack the melanoma cells.

 

Immunotherapy Side Effects

This youtube clip of a presentation by Dr Lipson from Johns Hopkins University talks about the side effects associated with the newer immunotherapy treatments and how they differ from chemotherapy side effects.

What is Biological Therapy?

Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. In the case of cancer treatment most biological therapies take the form of vaccines or bacteria.  These therapies stimulate the body’s immune system to act against cancer  cells rather than target them directly.  This is why most biological therapies are also a type of immunotherapy.