Current UV Index
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Alice Springs
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Gold Coast
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Click the indexes to view the minimum recommended protection

When the UV index is low, sun protection is generally not needed unless outside for extended periods

UV observations courtesy of ARPANSA

Melanoma Staging

Once a melanoma is diagnosed, the severity and spread is assessed using staging.  Staging refers to the thickness, ulceration and spread of the melanoma and is used to determine treatment.  Stages range from 0 to 4.

Stage 0:
Early or 'in-situ' melanomas. They are localised and have not penetrated below the surface of the skin.  Treatment is surgical removal.

Stage I:
These melanomas have invaded the skin but have not ulcerated and often show a slower growth rate. Treatment is surgical removal and depending on the depth, may also include biopsy or removal of nearby lymph nodes.

Stage II:
Thickness and ulceration define Stage II melanomas.  Still considered an early melanoma, there is no lymph node involvement or spread to organs. After surgical removal, drug or radiation treatment is often recommended to lessen the chance of the cancer returning.

Stage III:
A tumour is assigned a Stage III once it has metastasised or spread beyond the original tumour site.   Removal of the original tumour as well as local lymph nodes is standard. Drug treatment and radiation may be considered.

Stage IV:
Stage IV melanomas have metastasised to lymph nodes distant from the original tumour and/or other organs in the body.  The most common organs for melanoma to spread to are lungs, liver, brain and bone.   Drug therapy including immunotherapy and targeted therapies are usually offered.  Cutaneous/skin metastases often take the shape of multiple large and disfiguring tumours that are usually inoperable.  Surgery for Stage IV melanoma is usually not curative but can help with symptom management.